PEDIATRIC SLEEP APNEA








The presentation of obstructive sleep apnea in children differs from adult OSA in several key respects. Unlike adults, children with sleep disordered breathing may demonstrate hyperactivity and behavioral problems, symptoms which are sometimes mistaken for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). According to the American Sleep Apnea Association, as many as 25% of children diagnosed with ADHD may in fact have Obstructive Sleep Apnea, with their behavior being a consequence of chronically fragmented sleep. 


  







         SCREENING AND DIAGNOSIS 


Parents who notice any of the signs or symptoms listed here are encouraged to seek a consultation with their child's primary care provider.  A referral to a certified sleep physician is typically the next step, as definitive diagnosis can only be made on the basis of a sleep test. Other providers who may be involved in the evaluation and treatment process include ENT specialists and orthodontists. In addition to health history, physical examination and sleep testing, new imaging technology such as Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) may be used to obtain valuable information about the size of the airway and the nature or location of the obstructions. This information is essential in determining the best course of treatment. 





    

      
 



        SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF PEDIATRIC OSA

·         noisy, irregular breathing or snoring during sleep; this may occur without apnea or deep oxygen desaturations, but still  be characterized by significant respiratory effort and frequent arousals due to this effort. 3.2  to 12.1 % of children habitually snore, while the prevalence of OSA in children ranges from 0.7% to 10.3%
·          chronic mouthbreathing
·          witnessed gasping/ apnea
·          choking
·          irregular and frequent body position changes
·          recurrent ear/ sinus/ throat infections
·          excessive daytime sleepiness (less common, often with severe OSA)
·          rib cage retraction and rib flaring as a result of the respiratory effort
·          irritability, restlessness or hyperactivity (more common)
·          behavioral, social or academic problems
·           halitosis
·           bedwetting
·           poor weight gain
·          bruxism

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Admin SRSAN,
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